The Base64 encoding scheme is used in the HTTP standard to encode some types of information (the credentials during the basic authentication strategy). This article clears up a few ideas/questions I’ve encountered in the field while dealing with developers quite new to the trade.
It the context of basic auth, it is important to note that the Base64 encoding scheme is only meant to obscure the credentials sent to the server just enough to avoid clashes with the format in which the requests are composed. One should be very aware of the fact that looking at a Base64 encoded string gives one full knowledge of the originating string. Encoding is not encryption.
If the HTTP standard did not require the encoding of the credentials and
specified them to be formatted in the authorization header as
handle:secret we could get unpredicted results.
In the case of the
spock:livelongandprosper handle/secret combo, we
would not encounter any peculiarities, but whenever supplied credentials that
include characters that serve as delimiters to the HTTP standard we could hit
crapfest paydirt. Some of the characters that would trigger such disasters are
newline characters, spaces and colons (all of these have a special function in
the context of HTTP requests).
Imagine a case in which a user is not restricted in the type of characters it is allowed to use in passwords. In this case we can imagine one using a poem or a meaningless blob of text. I have just taken the liberty to compose a possible password containing a newline character.
Jack:1 Barbosa: 0
If the standard was designed to place the username password combination in the
header unaltered we could get the following result for a user named
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com Authorization: polly:Jack:1 Barbosa: 0
How the hell would this work? First of all spaces, colons and new-lines are
Barbosa a header with the value
0? How would I know
Barbosa is still part of the password? As a human I am having a hard time making sense of this string
and humans are generally believed to be great at pattern recognition.
Base64 encoding translates the handle and secret into a string that would not cause conflicts with the format in which we compose raw requests. In the following example I just parse the authorization scheme descriptor followed by a seperator (1 or more space characters) followed by a base64 string which would be a alphanumeric string ending in equal signs. As soon as I run into something that does not fit the format I throw up an invalid syntax exception. This design makes for a healthy parser .
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com Authorization: Basic QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==
Not So Weird After All
The idea of formatting user-supplied data to prevent weird behaviour when used in the context of another format is not so foreign to computing after all.
In many cases it has a much simpler form when named character escaping. When dealing with SQL querries we basically do something quite similar to prevent SQL-injection.
In url’s we also escape characters just to comply to the set of allowed
characters for url’s in accordance to the standard. You must have noticed
%20 phrase in some urls, which is simply the result of URL-encoding the
Wikipedia has an article on delimiter collision which deals with this specific problem, so we and all the pieces of software we compose can all get along .