Enabling Dell XPS's Mediabuttons on NixOS+XMonad

Bare with me, this posts covers a solution that may partially work for some but will probably cause some trouble down the road. I’ll get to it in a minute. I’m a XMonad user, so I ended up relying on a solution that

Trying actkbd

**TL;DR** Skip the actkbd part and head directly to the [XMonad part](#xmonad) :down:.

Inside your configuration.nix, or whichever file you import from your configuration.nix with the purpose of containing audio-related settings, add the following snippet:

services.actkbd = with pkgs; {
  enable = true;
  bindings = [
    # "Mute" media key
      keys = [ 113 ];
      events = [ "key" ];
      command = "${alsaUtils}/bin/amixer -q set Master toggle";

    # "Lower Volume" media key
      keys = [ 114 ];
      events = [ "key" "rep" ];
      command = "${alsaUtils}/bin/amixer -q set Master 1- unmute";

    # "Raise Volume" media key
      keys = [ 115 ];
      events = [ "key" "rep" ];
      command = "${alsaUtils}/bin/amixer -q set Master 1+ unmute";

The keycodes for the snippet have been acquired by switching to a virtual terminal and running showkey. The showkey application displays the keycodes for the pressed keys and exits after 10 seconds without input. In my case the keycodes for mute, volume down and volume up represented the keycodes 113, 114 and 115 respectively.

Be careful whenever you end up with keycodes 59, 60 and 61 for the mute, volume down and volume up keys as these are actually the keycodes for the function keys `F1`, `F2` and `F3`. If you end up with these keycodes, you may have to press `Fn` along with the intended function key to evoke the alternate behavior :wink:.

Since my function keys have been configured in my BIOS to behave as function keys instead of multimedia keys, I can switch between virtual terminals by simultaneously pressing Ctrl, Alt and any of my function keys ranging from F1 through F12.

Note that NixOS reserves the seventh virtual terminal for the window manager and the [eight terminal for its manual][nixos-altf8].

Triggering the multimedia behavior for mute, which is set up on the F1 key, will require me to simultaneously press Fn and F1. Note that Fn indicates to the system that I intent to trigger the alternate behavior for the given key.

When the BIOS is configured to treat function keys as multimedia keys, one will have to prefix the function key with the `Fn` key within the keystroke sequence necessary to switch to the virtual terminals. Switching to virtual terminal 1 would, in that case, require the simultaneous pressing of `Ctrl`, `Alt`, `Fn` and `F1`. The mute button, however; would be accessible through a simple press of just the `F1` button. It's obviously up to you to determine which configuration makes sense for you as long as you are aware of the differences in use that this may entail.

The problem with this approach is that the actkbd daemon executes commands as root. Since the PulseAudio server imposes restrictions on who may connect to it, we need to connect as the same user as the one running the server.

XDG_RUNTIME_DIR (/run/user/1988) is not owned by us (uid 0), but by uid 1988! (This could e g happen if you try to connect to a non-root PulseAudio as a root user, over the native protocol. Don't do that.)

ALSA lib pulse.c:243:(pulse_connect) PulseAudio: Unable to connect: Connection refused

amixer: Mixer attach default error: Connection refused


Retrieve the keysym for the required buttons in xev (0x1008ff12, 0x1008ff11 and 0x1008ff13 in my case) and add these to the xmonad.hs.

I’ve chosen to define my audio keys as a seperate list

audioKeys = [
    ((0, 0x1008ff12), spawn "amixer -q set Master toggle")
  , ((0, 0x1008ff11), spawn "amixer -q set Master 10%-")
  , ((0, 0x1008ff13), spawn "amixer -q set Master 10%+")

and concatenate them to the other bindings in order to produce myKeys :wink:

myKeys = [
-- some other keybindings
] ++ audioKeys

but you should do whatever works best for your setup. Check out the XMonad config tips for some interesting ideas regarding the structuring of your configuration.